Attacks on Water Supplies

The Process Water to the TapWater supply usually comes from surface water such as lakes, rivers and seas.  In many communities, water is pumped from aquifer located underground then routed to a treatment plant, where a variety of physical and chemical processes render the water safe to drink.  Photo: 2009 Situated by a lake, a building on the grounds of the water treatment plant in downtown Austin, Texas, United States. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jimnix/3654215458/Diliberate ContaminationWithout much consideration of the acquisition, treatment, and distribution of water, these processes have been geared toward providing high quality of water for over a century.  But since the 1990s and the evolution of new terrorist targets, the threat of a deliberate contamination of water supplies has become more probable.  Kunze (1997) identified 833 major destructive acts at US public utilities between 1986 and 1995.VulnerabilitiesAfter the 11 September 2001 attacks…

YOU MUST HAVE A SUBSCRIPTION TO ACCESS THE REST OF THIS CONTENT.
You are currently only seeing 1% of the 10,000-plus pieces of expert insights and analyses available with a TRAC subscription.
Single Users
Personal

As a courtesy to private researchers, TRAC offers a discounted rate to individuals who are subscribing from a personal email address and paying with a personal credit/debit card.

$500
Buy
Organizational

The annual subscription rate for full access to TRAC is $750 for a single user within an organization.

$750
Buy
Multiple Users
Prorated

Multiple users within govermental/military, corporate, and media, as well as colleges and universities, receive pro-rated subscription discounts based on the number of users. TRAC fully supports academic institutions and provides subscriptions on a reduced rate based on FTE. For multiple users rates contact TRAC.

Contact
Not quite ready?
TRAC is a subscription-based service. You can try TRAC for 7 days with this trial. If you choose to subscribe at the end of the trial, the trial cost will be deducted from the price of your subscription.

About TRAC’s Core Articles

Commissioned, proprietary analysis of key components of terrorist activities and groups, such as “Recruiting Female Suicide Bombers”, written by experts worldwide.

Table of Contents

About the Contributor

Ava Patricia C Avila

Ms. Ava Patricia C. Avila is a Research Associate at the National Institute of Education, Singapore. She is currently pursuing a PhD in defense management at Cranfield University, looking at the role...