Environmental Life Force

John Hanna founded the original ELF (Environmental Life Force) in 1977 before Earth First! and the Earth Liberation Front were established.  He is recognized as the founding father of the ELF concept, a philosophy that has been adopted by the Earth Liberation Front and continues to this day.  This was the first eco-guerrilla unit to use direct action and the name ELF.  As originally conceived, the ELF would have no central leadership or chain of command.  Each cell was intended to be  autonomous and an individual could join or drop out at will.  Anyone could call him or her self a member of ELF but no one can be an ELF leader. Hanna was convicted in a federal court for the manufacture and detonation of home-made napalm bombs placed on seven crop-duster aircraft at the Salinas, CA airport on May 1, 1977. He claimed to have acted in self-defense against toxic pesticides, but was sentenced to five years in prison.

Environmental Life Force is an inactive group formed c. 1977.
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