On 1 April 1964 the Brazilian military (then numbering 200,000 in all three services, and another 120,000 in assorted paramilitary organizations and whose officer corps was solidly on the side of conservative business and the vested interests of large land-owners) staged a coup d'état and established a totalitarian state. There was significant popular resistance to the overthrow of civilian government. A major split in the Brazilian Communist Party occurred, between the Maoist faction (which believed in armed struggle as the main instrument for seizing power) and the Moscow faction (which placed its faith in subversion and a united political front), and a number of small urban and rural guerrilla groups formed. Most of these groups drew their membership from the "professional lumpenproletariat" sector of Brazilian society — disaffected students, artists, intellectuals, radical priests, and dissident Communist party organizers. One of the first of these groups to be…
Popular Revolutionary Vanguard - Brazil (VPR)
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